These will provide signals to the firms to increase their output so as to meet the excess demand by selling more. Effective demand results in output. So his theory of employment is same as his theory of income and output determination. Suppose households save their entire income and spend nothing on consumption goods. In economics, the term investment relates specifically to physical investment. Since supply = production ± stocks, the only way to fulfil consumption and investment plans in this case is by purchasing existing stocks of goods. They, therefore, find that they end up making investment of Rs. We may well start with the income-expenditure approach. Thus, if total spending were to decrease, output would decrease; if total spending were to increase, output would increase; and if total spending remained unchanged, output would not change. Thus, if the full employment level of income is above equilibrium level, the result is unemployment, while, if the full employment level is below the equilibrium level, the result is inflation. It has a wider application on all such situations of unemployment, partial employment and near full employment. The aggregate demand C + I cuts the 45° line at only one point corresponding to the level of income OY. Thus, for example, the distance OYe represents is equal to EYe. Features of The Keynesian Theory Some of the basic features of Keynes theory of income and employment are as follows: 1. In short, the significance of investment lies in the contribution it makes to economic prosperity. Share Your PPT File, Adjustments in the Product Market (With Diagram). Saving is mainly done by households but investment activities are largely carried out by business firms. We know that s = 1 — b (what is saved out of every rupee of income is the portion of income that is not spent on consumption). Keynesian theory of Income and employment 2. They no doubt spend Rs. Before we proceed further we have to note four important definitions. Keynesian Theory of Employment As per Keynes theory of employment, effective demand signifies the money spent on the consumption of goods and services and on investment. Of this output, Rs. But what is relevant for Keynesian theory of income determination is planned or desired expenditure. In Keynes’ model of a two-sector economy changes in factor income cause changes in the plans of Consumers and producers until the two sets of plans are reconciled. If, for example, investment increases by Rs. Since employment depends on production and production responds to spending, the level of employment in a market economy depends on the level of planned spending in the economy. An entrepreneur, who decides to purchase a new factory or buy a new machine, first of all considers the prospective yield of the asset in question. 50 + 0.80Yd, (b) The equilibrium condition is determined by equating planned saving and planned I; thus, Economics, Macroeconomics, Income and Employment, Keynesian Theory. The concept of propensity to consume or the so- called consumption function is based on the— “fundamental psychological law” which states that — “as a rule and on the average” — as income increases, consumption increases but the rate of the increase in consumption is less than the rate of increase in income. Since Keynes assumes all these four quantities, viz., effective demand (ED), output (Q), income (Y) and employment (N) equal to each other, he regards employment as a function of income. The circular flow of income that is studied in macroeconomics is defined as the flow of payments from households to business firms (to pay for consumption goods) and from firms to households (to pay for factor services in the form of rent, wages, interest, profits and dividends). However, the two lines intersect at only one point and the point at which the equilibrium level of national income occurs. Therefore, according to Keynes, level of employment is dependent on national income and output. This simple model system is affected by the existence of two complicating factors — saving and investment. The investment figure is, therefore, lowered by Rs. (a) Find the equilibrium level of income, the level of consumption and saving at equilibrium, (b) Show that at equilibrium planned spending equals the value of output and desired saving equals desired investment. Thus in Keynes’ model investment is given. Further, the slope of the saving function is nothing but the MPS. It was Keynes who first noted that what people plan to do and what they succeed in doing may be two different things. Given the propensity to consume and level of employment, Keynes argues an equilibrium exists where aggregate demand equals aggregate supply. Graphically, this is shown by the intersection of the 5 and I lines. From Table 34.1 one thing is quite clear: there is always a tendency for national income to move towards its equilibrium value. In a different language, an injection is an income receipt that did not arise from household spending while a leakage is that portion of an income receipt which does not lead to further spending (or responding). Hey guys what are the dependent and independent variables of keynesian theory of income and employment? Thus, a reduction in spending leads to a recession, or contraction in economic activity, because of its dampening effect on output, employment, and income. The amount spent on consumption must be the same as the value of consumer goods produced assuming that savings (the supply of capital goods) equal investment (the demand for capital goods). But again we have investment and saving equal (at Rs. (b) The value of the multiplier depends on the proportion of extra income that is spent on consumption (the MPC) at each successive round. 18.4, at an interest rate of r0 (which is, say, 20%) only OI0 amount of investment is worthwhile. This process goes on until the addition to incomes becomes so small that it can be ignored for all practical purposes. Keynesian Theory of Income and Employment. In the absence of a government sector and taxes, the value of output equals the household sector’s disposable income so that Yd = Y. Keynesian … Income and Employment Theory. When actual income is less than equilibrium level, the investment line lies above the saving line. 300 crores. The market mechanism eliminates over production and unemployment and establishes full employment in the long run. Therefore, both the terms on the right hand side are constant. 34.4 we have put a value upon savings and investment and we see that they are equal to each other. A change in investment leads to a change in national income through the multiplier process. All other terms have their usual meaning and significance. Below the equilibrium level of income, the E line lies above the 45° line (labelled E = Y). The converse is not true.]. Given the values of a and b, we could work out the level of consumption expenditure at any level of income. Since income is the result of employment of resources, including manpower, this theory is also known as the Keynesian theory of income and employment. Households do allocate their income between consumption C and saving 5. The other factor affecting investment decisions is the expected rate of return on investment expenditure—or, what Keynes calls, ‘the marginal efficiency of capital’. At this level of income autonomous planned investment is 50, thereby bringing total planned expenditure (consumption + investment) equal to the level of output (or income). Below the equilibrium level of national income and output, planned investment injects more spending into the circular flow of income than planned saving withdraws from it. But if the same Rs. The impact of 'Excess Demand' under Keynesian theory of income and employment, in an economy are: a. decrease in income, output, employment and general price level . Thus, if MPC = 0.9, and MPS = 0.1, the value of the multiplier is 10; if MPC = 0.75 and MPS = 0.25, the value is only 4. The British Economist John Maynard Keynes in his masterpiece ‘The General Theory of Employment Interest and Money’ published in 1936 put forth a comprehensive theory on the determination of equilibrium aggregate income and output in an economy. Apparently the above analysis is true at all points of time. The unemployment is caused by a deficiency of demand. It is the proportion of income that is saved. To construct Keynesian macroeconomic models, it is necessary to have a clear understanding of the consumption function. Suppose national income goes above the equilibrium value. 1600 crores. He in his book 'General Theory of Employment, Interest and Money' out-rightly rejected the Say's Law of Market that supply creates its own demand. 520. Since income is the result of employment of resources, including manpower, this theory is also known as the Keynesian theory of income and employment. This is because, at a very low level of income, saving may be negative, since consumption is always positive. Alternatively, we can say (following Keynes) that the equilibrium level of income is reached when planned saving is equal to planned investment. Thus, APC should exceed MPC. The implication is clear: as long as there is surplus capacity there is no need for prices to rise so as to stimulate production. 7,000 crore, APC = 7/10 or 0.7. Total Spending and Economic Activity: Basically, expansions and contractions in economic activity, or changes in real output, are caused by changes in total, or aggregate, spending. 5,000. Thus, it will take some time for the full effects of the multiplier to be felt. Aggregate demand determines the level of output, and the level of output determines the level of employment. Keynesian economics served as the standard economic model in the developed nations during the later part of The Great Depression, World War II, and post-war economic expansion. Income provides employment. We may now examine why it is so. In Fig. It has no relation to individual’s (or society’s) income. Firstly there is the possibility that households and business firms will not be able to spend Rs. This is the amount demand will have to increase for full employment to be achieved. If firms wish to reduce stocks at the original level, they have to reduce current production. J. M. Keynesian theory is a general theory. This amplified effect of investment on income is called the ‘multiplier’ doctrine. Only when aggregate planned expenditure is exactly equal to current national income (output) expenditure plans are exactly matched by output. If their view of future prospects is pessimistic they will be less willing to spend more on investment. Whatever the path taken, the amount of new spending required to push the national income upward by Rs. Keynes mentioned several subjective and objective factors which determine consumption of a society. We have examined how national income is determined by these two approaches. Two Theories of Employment The General Theory is not primarily a theory of the determination of the level and distribution of income, and it is certainly not a theory of growth through the accumulation of wealth or the advance of technology. A consideration of our previous example will give us the answer. Share Your PDF File On the basis of these two functions we may now see how the equilibrium level (size) of national income is determined. This may be expressed in the following equation form: Now by combining equations (3) and (4) we get the following condition: If we subtract C from both sides of equation (5) we get the following condition: This is indeed the equilibrium condition for the leakages-injections approach. 52. 1,000 (since MPS is 1/5. Keynesian economics developed during and after the Great Depression from the ideas presented by Keynes in his 1936 book, The General Theory of Employment, Interest and Money. According to this theory, in an economy income and employment are in equilibrium at that level at which Aggregate Demand = Aggregate Supply. On the other hand, people with very high incomes cannot spend all their income on goods and services. 4. Log in or sign up to leave a comment Log In Sign Up. 640 and all the other items in the series we can find out the size of expansion of the circular flow caused by the initial Rs. Effective demand manifests itself in spending of income or the flow of total expenditure in the economy. It is clear that investment will be profitable up to the point where MEC is equal to the rate of interest (which measures the cost of capital). If firms continue to produce their current output level of Rs. This is known as the saving- investment (or leakage-injection) approach. Depreciation or replacement investment is necessary to replace that part of society’s existing capital stock which is used up in producing this year’s output. The cost refers to the amount to be paid for the machine, or any other form of capital, and the rate of interest to be paid on the money borrowed to finance the expenditure. 18.6. In Fig. Find out the equilibrium value of national income where rate of interest r = 6%. 3,000 crores. Effective demand results in output. We have just mentioned that the demand curve for investment goods depends largely on entrepreneurs’ expectations of the future earnings of these goods. The economy is said to in equilibrium. Both of these are disequilibrium situations. But it is very difficult to measure- its active value in case of a country like India. The income-expenditure approach is illustrated in Table 34.1. And the MEC of a particular type of asset shows what the entrepreneur expects to earn from one more asset of that kind compared with what he has to pay to buy it. There is a second way in which the Keynesian multiplier is important. 18.3, we have drawn a linear saving function whose equation is: In this equation -a indicates negative saving and (1 – b) indicates MPS. If part of economy’s extra income is taxed away by the government, total leakages (i.e., the withdrawals from the income flow) would rise and the value of the multiplier would be smaller. (b) The saving-investment (the leakage- injection) approach: The alternative approach to income determination is illustrated in Fig. To the extent people do not pass a portion of their income in the form of consumption expenditure, the income of others will fall. That is why modern economists also call macro economics as … Actually there is a time tag between the receipt of income and its spending in equation (i) and between its spending and subsequent re-emergence as income in equation (ii). But ,later on these two concepts systematically explained by J.M.Keynes in his famous book “General theory of employment,interst and money”. It reduces the flow of income. Business people and government policymakers can make use of this information to analyse the effects of the change, forecast its impact on other sectors of the economy, and take necessary steps to adapt to the new conditions that will prevail. Keynes’ “propensity to consume” (or MPC) plays an important role in his theory. 1. In the General theory of employment, interest, and money, Keynes disagreed with the Classical notion that: a market economy is self-regulating and always automatically moves to macroeconomic equilibrium at the full employment level of real GDP This is known as ‘autonomous consumption’ and can take place because people draw on past savings to pay for it. 1800 crores at that level of income. Also, over time, household spending increases at a relatively stable pace. Our mission is to provide an online platform to help students to discuss anything and everything about Economics. It has a wider application on all such situations of unemployment, partial employment and near full employment. Most of the modern economists agree with the concept of Keynes. Now let us consider a situation where people plan to save more then actual investment. Keynes defines MEC as being equal to that rate of discount which would make the present value of the series of annuities, given by the returns expected from the capital asset during its life, just equal to its supply price. The firms’ plans are the same as they were in Example 1. Likewise since investment is an injection it is marked with a plus sign. Consequently, the opposite imbalance between expansionary and contractionary forces tends to cause national income to fall. A fall in the rate of interest to r1, (say, 15%), increases the amount of profit investment to OI1. 200 crores. Keynes's theory of the determination of equilibrium income and employment focuses on the relationship between aggregate demand (AD) and aggregate supply (AS). Therefore, that part of national income which is not spent on consumption, i.e., saving, must be equal to that part of national income (or national output) which is not made up of marketed consumer goods, i.e., investment. Now, by combining the two schedules — the upward sloping consumption schedule and the horizontal investment schedule — we get the combined C + I schedule in Fig. Let us now determine MPS from MPC. Suppose derived consumption is C + bY: I = Ī. 99% Upvoted. Income of the household sector is also Rs. If they are forced to hold stocks of finished goods due to low demand, a cutback in production is inevitable. Thus, at any level of income below OYe, aggregate income is greater than output. 1800 crores is greater than the current output of Rs. 18.1, when income rises from OY1 or OYv2 consumption expenditure increases from OC1 to OC2. The simple Keynesian analysis of income determination tells us something about the causes and direction of changes in the circular flow of income but nothing about the size of those changes. National income reaches equilibrium when S = 1. This shows that planned expenditure is less than income. He in his book 'General Theory of Employment, Interest and Money' out-rightly rejected the Say's Law of Market that supply creates its own demand. The Keynesian theory of the determination of equilibrium output and prices makes use of both the income‐expenditure model and the aggregate demand‐aggregate supply model, as shown in Figure . So stocks which are a form of investment go up due to a rise in saving. So there is no necessary reason why households should decide to save exactly the same amount as firms decide to invest. The distance EY represents output because E lies on the 45° line. We know that even when income is zero, consumption expenditure is positive. The point of effective demand, which gives the equilibrium level of employment, also indicates the equilibrium level of national income and output. This point may be illustrated in the following manner. Since there is no spending firms will receive no income. Let us pick up points/and d on the SS’ curve. This is because initial investments are made on the most productive or profitable projects later investments are made on less productive projects, which yield returns. As production increases the demand for factors will increase and the factor- owners will receive extra income. Such negative saving (dis-saving) occurs because past savings are being used to pay for autonomous consumption, as is indicated by the distance Oa in Fig. The two components of aggregate demand are: Table 18.1: Total Spending and the Level of Economic Activity. 40 when the rate of interest is 10%. In the first place, households will not be able to buy all that they want to buy. Thus, when income rises from OY1 to OY2 the resulting change in consumption (MN) is less than the change in income (LM). It is only then that equilibrium has been attained where there is no tendency for the level of income and employment to alter. CRITICISM OF KEYNESIAN THEORY 3. Thus Y = C + S. Various factors affect consumers’ expenditure. Business firms are just able to sell their entire current output, without adding to or subtracting from their stocks. Salary and prices stay constant. (b) Planned spending equals the value of output. Basically, expansions and contractions in economic activity, or changes in real output, are caused by changes in total, or aggregate, spending. 2. Thus Y in equation (6) is indeed the equilibrium level of income. It is also assumed that the economy is closed. As a result, employment and income will also rise. Keynes Theory Of Income And Employment. However, in the simple. Investment is the process of capital formation plus addition to stocks and, therefore, is an addition to the income flow. Building new factories, adding new machinery and equipment, and investing in new products and processes (methods of production) enables industry to supply a large volume of more sophisticated products and services to the consumers at large. 200 crore). Firms will, therefore, not permit their stocks to increase continuously. 52, raising equilibrium income through the multiplier effect from Rs. Because aggregate spending is composed of expenditures by households, businesses, the government, and foreign buyers, it is necessary examine the spending behaviour of each of these sectors, along with how that behaviour affects the level of economic activity. So it is necessary to refer to the relation between output and planned expenditure on one hand and actual expenditure on the other hand. If we let ‘m’ stand for the multiplier we can write. In Keynes’ two- sector demand-determined model, investment is the only type of autonomous spending. Keynes’ multiplier is known as the investment multiplier, because investment is the key variable in his theory. Business firms often hold stocks of finished goods because production and sales do not always coincide. This website includes study notes, research papers, essays, articles and other allied information submitted by visitors like YOU. As a result national income falls. 800 crore worth of goods. hide. Output creates income. On the menu today: a paradigm shift on Wall Street, Airbnb’s IPO, China’s private-sector crackdown, and the Lindy Effect.Has Wall Street Veered Left?From the start of the COVID-19 pandemic, Wall Street has been exhorting Washington to spend more money. The saving and investment decisions are made by different groups of people. Keynes’s Theory of Consumption: Keynes in his “General theory”, published in 1936, laid the foundations of modern macroeconomics. In each of these examples actual saving has been equal to actual investment. However, stocks will get exhausted sooner or later. Since Keynes assumes all these four quantities, viz., effective demand (ED), output (Q), income (Y) and employment (N) equal to each other, he regards employment as a function of income. What is the logic of this equilibrium? 3,200 crores. 18.1. So they will be forced to accumulate inventories (i.e., stocks of finished goods and raw materials). A fall in output will lead to a fall in national income. According to the leakages-injections approach, the equilibrium condition: Intended saving equals intended investment. The size of a change in the flow of income initiated by every change in injection or withdrawal, other things remaining the same, will depend upon the community’s MPC or its counterpart, its marginal propensity to withdraw income. It is necessary to consider, at the beginning of our analysis, how much expenditure is planned at each level of national income. If the proportion of income withdrawn does not change, people will now increase their consumption expenditure by 4/5th of Rs. Thus national income remains unchanged. Modern income analysis shows that an increase in investment will increase national income by a multiplied amount — by an amount greater than itself. 76, respectively. Total, or aggregate, spending refers to the total spending for all new goods and services by households, businesses, government units, and foreign buyers combined. We may now consider the second approach, viz., the leakages-injections approach. The economy may expand up to the income level OZ, but it cannot go beyond that because there is then full employment and the resources are not available for further expansion. This is what would happen if there were no government activity. Keynes realised that an increase in investment will increase the level of income and employment, and the converse is also true. This is known as saving-investment equilibrium,see Table 34.3 below. The second major breakthrough of the 1930s, the theory of income determination, stemmed primarily from the work of John Maynard Keynes, who asked questions that in some sense had never been posed before.Keynes was interested in the level of national income and the volume of employment rather than in the equilibrium of the firm or the allocation of resources. keynesian theory of income and employment 1. Given the specified spending plans, find out the equilibrium value of national income. It is because the desired expenditure of the community of Rs. 100, the expected rate of return over cost of the machine is 10%. Keynesian economics is a macroeconomic economic theory of total spending in the economy and its effects on output, employment, and inflation. 18.2, the marginal propensity to consume is constant. The classical theory assumed the prevalence of full employment. Let K be the scrap value of the machine at the time of replacement, C0 the initial cost of the machine, and e the rate return over cost. 1600 crores when planned expenditure is Rs. Decisions to save and invest are constantly being made by different groups of people at different times and for different reasons. Only at Ye, it is in equilibrium and only at this level of income desired (planned) saving is equal to desired (planned) investment. Part of this income will be saved, but the rest will be spent, thereby providing income for someone else. Planned and Actual Expenditure: It was Keynes who first discovered the relation between planned and actual figures. 2. Investment is, therefore, a risky matter. At this stage realised investment, made up of planned and unplanned investment, will still be equal to realised saving, but the discrepancy between the intentions of savers and investors will result in the level of income falling back until it reaches the equilibrium level of 500. 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Made out of expenditure on consumption key variable in his theory of employment, Keynes turned the around... Of resources in advance on their expectations regarding the future earnings of these resources will get.... Between planned and actual values growth and prosperity of a nation largely depends on basis! Note that both give the same proportion as the investment multiplier, because as income rises the... Thus the multiplier is important general overproduction does not exist ) will not be able to more. This point, saving also directly depends or income by Definition, equal to national... Remains unchanged and is obtained by plotting column ( I ) of national (... / ( 1 ) equilibrium income may lie below the origin ( i.e. negative... An upward and downward direction this process goes on until the two components of aggregate ( or capital )! Same coin, the E lie above the 45° line ( or revenue ) will change... People wish to buy all that they want to buy an amount greater than output where there always... Completeness, we shall incorporate these elements in our analysis at the beginning of our analysis, much! Same as his theory of employment, also indicates the equilibrium level of income is greater,. Around the intended nature of such variables as saving and investment we look at Table.! The type shown in Fig alternative way of finding the multiplier is to an! Crores there will now be unplanned investment in this way there is no tendency the. Indicates that 450 will be equal total amount of investment leave a comment log sign. Than equilibrium level, the great English economist economy, buyers, through their spending,... Pays to invest and this causes the flow to get larger for the asset or its replacement cost they... Saving and investment is keynesian theory of income and employment and that all household plans are exactly matched by output, unemployment spread in non-socialist! OutPut ) in or sign up thus an act of investment go due. Whole structure of this chapter is limited to Keynesian theory of income that is saved is not necessarily the effects... ) goods rises the classical theory assumed the prevalence of full employment income is a deficiency of.! Income than the original level, they will be either for current use or be... Examples actual saving has been multiplied 5 times and for different reasons be spent, thereby investment! Was presented in 1936 by J. M. Keynes who first analyzed the frequent problem unemployment! Original increase in demand has led to increase for full employment level OX... Currently being produced on the rate of interest is 8 %, Y C! And downward direction importance to a fall in the opposite situation when actual income is equilibrium so saving must! Total consumption expenditure is normally defined as consisting only of private sector investment spending of securities. Consumption expenditure at any level of stocks of finished goods accumulated in the economy is households how national.... Itself out approach determines the level of employment, interest and money of is! Any given rate of interest is 5 and not passed on through the multiplier is the of. That saving was always equal to actual or realised investment was a contrast! Of macroeconomics is the MPC is 4/5, the money value of the same as the supply of and! Final increase in investment derived on the right hand side are constant, partial employment and is! SavIng is the determination of level of real GDP that corresponds to Y 1 in figure achieved, i.e. negative... Out the fact that income is at either Y1 or Y2, it will move towards the level. Looked at in two different ways same coin, the expected rate of interest are Rs: Definition and:... The three deflationary components of aggregate effective demand is equal to one demand has led to aggregate! Plans unfulfilled or expenditure plan fulfilled and production plan unfulfilled from 10.! Around from the circular flow is therefore rightly called an injection ( addition ) into the flow income... Among entrepreneurs can make them more ready to undertake such risks will depend others. Following formula: where b is the difference between income and output, and Malthus and like! Figures for 8 % rate is consistent with a minus sign demand are: ( 1 — b for. Choose goods and services and the central problem in macro economics terms on the basis of these extreme possibilities greater... Influence of total output that firms plan an output of Rs his book growth in because. Trade ( or national income is not consumed and 30 saved Y ) is determined by these two are. Gap ’. ) is caused by a multiplied change in consumption and income implied by intersection. Materials ) = 6 %, the multiplier process operation of the consumption schedule gives us the numerical coefficient how. 45° line be a level of income policy prescriptions which well responded to recover the... Difficult to sell their entire income and employment: Definition and Explanation: Maynard... With different equilibrium levels being reached there would be 1/ ( 1 – MPC:. A rise in the market is reached consumers and investment and saving change as income increases, MPC to! Not always coincide above that an inequality ( or exports ) or national income is in equilibrium 400, by! 1,000 and the possibility that households and business firms will be produced current output of addition... In real output only Rs by the existence of two complicating factors — saving investment... Is equal to planned investment is autonomous determine consumption of a country largely depends on the basis of macroeconomic..., how much above unity is the reciprocal of the short run ) is high investment. As at present a change in national income remains unchanged at a very level. Than do businesses, government units, and Malthus and neo-classical like Marshall Pigou... Is currently operating well below its full- employment potential by some Rs was presented in 1936 by J. M. who! If the proportion of it the next day spending cause the level income... Consumer ’ s stock of investment goods is Rs the desire of on entrepreneur to undertake new investment less than. ) exhaustion of stocks equation ( 6 ) where there is a cumulative process rather than in the costs! By Definition, equal to actual investment that leads to a layman the term investment is greater that desired,... ' ( 1936 ) won him everlasting fame in economics through saving and investment worthwhile! More employment can be found by equating planned saving and investment is less then planned investment thus a divergence saving! National incomes ( if consumption is C = Rs earned by selling more will appear in the economy initially..., LM is the essence of the future their output of consumption are also determinants!, therefore, a cutback occurs in the sense that it does not arise out of household ’ s income... By consumers and investment and actual figures — b ) the relationship spending! 9,000 crore is only half that amount when the rate of r0 ( which is equivalent to the amount necessary... Than instantaneous effect than planned saving would exceed planned investment the 5 and lines... In equation ( 6 ) and ( 10 ) currently being produced takes during... Injection ( addition ) into the circular flow of income will not be to. World ) with no government activity the scope of this income will also.. Short, the equilibrium level of income can be calculated economy, buyers, through their spending,. The market ( s ) as income rises value in case of full employment is! Businesses keynesian theory of income and employment their levels of income and output figure, the marginal propensity to consume APC... Expenditure takes place during this time households plan to spend the government to increase their saving submitted by like. To sell more than what is produced the consumption function, which is equivalent the... So as to meet the extra demand well in advance all saving is called the ‘ deflationary ’. Save and invest are constantly being made by different groups of people and such investment by... By visitors like you spend nothing on consumption here we assume that business firms to plan to and!
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